Prothrombin and Fragments


Prothrombin is synthesized in the liver and secreted as a single-chain 579 residue protein (UniProtKB – P00734 (THRB_HUMAN)).

It is composed of four domains: the Gla domain (residues 1-65); the first Kringle domain (K1; residues 66-144; the second Kringle domain (K2; residues 170-248); and the catalytic domain (Pro; residues 272-579).

The Gla and K1 domains are in intimate contact, as are the K2 and catalytic domains. A flexible stretch of 26 residues links K1 to K2, and can be cleaved by thrombin at R155 to form Fragment 1 (F1) and Prethrombin-1 (Pre-1).

The protease responsible for cleavage of prothrombin is factor Xa (fXa). On its own it cleaves R271 to form Fragment 1.2 (F1.2) and Prethrombin-2 (Pre-2), and then at R320 to form the active protease thrombin.

The physiological activator of prothrombin is the prothrombinase complex, formed of fXa and fVa on a negatively-charged phospholipid membrane. It cleaves R320 first to form the active intermediate Meizothrombin, then it cleaves R155 to release F1.2 and thrombin.

Prothrombin

CPW
  • Human prothrombin (plasma)

     
    Natural highly purified human prothrombin from plasma.
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prothrombin (wild-type)

     
    Human prothrombin (wild-type) recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prothrombin (S195A)

     
    Human prothrombin (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant mammalian expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Rat prothrombin (wild-type)

     
    Rat prothrombin (wild-type) recombinant mammalian expression.
    Species: Rat Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Cynomolgus monkey prothrombin (wild-type)

     
    Cynomolgus monkey prothrombin (wild-type) recombinant mammalian expression.
    Species: Cynomolgus Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Rat prothrombin (S195A)

     
    Rat prothrombin (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S521A in mature numbering) recombinant mammalian expression. This mutation (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering) is an active site mutation.
    Species: Rat Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Cynomolgus monkey prothrombin (S195A)

     
    Cynomolgus monkey prothrombin (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S523A in mature numbering) recombinant mammalian expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Cynomolgus Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant

Prethrombin-1

CPW
  • Human prethrombin-1 (plasma)

     
    Human prethrombin-1 (plasma)
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prethrombin-1 (wild-type)

     
    Human prethrombin-1 (wild-type) recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prethrombin-1 (S195A)

     
    Human prethrombin-1 (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant mammalian expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant

Prethrombin-2

CPW
  • Human prethrombin-2 (plasma)

     
    Human prethrombin-2 (plasma)
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prethrombin-2 (wild-type)

     
    Human prethrombin-2 (wild-type) recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prethrombin-2 (S195A)

     
    Human prethrombin-2 (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant mammalian expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human prethrombin-2 (wild-type)

     
    Human prethrombin-2 (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prethrombin-2 (S195A)

     
    Human prethrombin-2 (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant bacterial expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant

F1.2

CPW
  • Human prothrombin fragment 1.2 (plasma)

     
    Human prothrombin fragment 1.2 (plasma)
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prothrombin fragment 1.2

     
    Human prothrombin fragment 1.2 recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type

F1

CPW
  • Human prothrombin fragment 1 (plasma)

     
    Human prothrombin fragment 1 (plasma)
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prothrombin fragment 1

     
    Human prothrombin fragment 1 recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type

F2

CPW
  • Human prothrombin fragment 2 (plasma)

     
    Human prothrombin fragment 2 (plasma)
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human prothrombin fragment 2

     
    Human prothrombin fragment 2 recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type

Meizothrombin

CPW
  • Human meizothrombin (R155Q/R271Q/R284Q)

     
    Human meizothrombin (R155Q/R271Q/R284Q) recombinant mammalian expression. These mutations prevent autolytic cleavage and the molecule is therefore stable.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Murine meizothrombin (R157Q/R268Q)

     
    Murine meizothrombin (R157Q/R268Q) recombinant mammalian expression (mouse).These mutations allow for the production of a stable active intermediate.
    Species: Murine Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human meizothrombin (R155Q/R271Q/R284Q/S195A)

     
    Human meizothrombin (R155Q/R271Q/R284Q/S195A) recombinant mammalian expression. The R155Q/R271Q/R284Q mutations prevent further cleavage and is therefore stable. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant

Thrombin and variants

CPW
  • Human thrombin (plasma)

     
    Human alpha-thrombin (plasma)
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Human alpha-thrombin (wild-type) recombinant mammalian expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human thrombin (S195A)

     
    Human thrombin (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant mammalian expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Human alpha-thrombin (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human gamma thrombin (S195A)

     
    Human gamma thrombin (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant bacterial expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human gamma thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Human gamma thrombin (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human gamma thrombin (plasma)

     
    Human gamma thrombin (plasma).
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human thrombin (plasma) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Human alpha-thrombin (plasma) Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone inhibited.
    Species: Human Source: Natural Expression: N/A Cell Line: N/A Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human thrombin (wild-type) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Human alpha-thrombin (wild-type) Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone inhibited recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human thrombin (wild-type) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Human alpha-thrombin (wild-type) Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone inhibited recombinant mammalian expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human biotinylated thrombin (S11C)

     
    Human thrombin containing the S11C mutation (chymotrypsin numbering, S303C in mature numbering) for specific biotinylation for use in Streptavidin binding in SPR experiments
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human biotinylated thrombin (S195A/S11C)

     
    Human thrombin (S195A/S11C, chymotrypsin numbering) recombinant bacterial expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue. Biotinylation at S11C mutation (S303C in mature numbering) allows immobilisation of the protein to streptavidin beads or an SPR chip.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Rat thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Rat thrombin (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Rat Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human biotinylated thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Preferentially N-terminal biotinylated human thrombin (wild-type), although some biotinylation of lysine residues can occur. Recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human biotinylated thrombin (wild-type) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Preferentially N-terminal biotinylated human thrombin (wild-type) inhibited with Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone(PPAck). Recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human biotinylated thrombin (S303C) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Human thrombin containing the S303C mutation (S11C in chymotrypsin numbering) for specific biotinylation for use in Streptavidin binding in SPR experiments and inhibited with Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone(PPAck). Recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Rat thrombin (wild-type) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Rat thrombin (wild-type) inhibited with Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone(PPAck). Recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Rat Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Cynomolgus monkey thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Cynomolgus monkey thrombin (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Cynomolgus Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Cynomolgus monkey thrombin (wild-type) FPR-CK inhibited

     
    Cynomolgus monkey thrombin (wild-type) inhibited with Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone(PPAck). Recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Cynomolgus Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Rat thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Rat thrombin (wild-type) expressed in mammalian cells for addition of glycosylation moieties. Recombinant mammalian expression.
    Species: Rat Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Cynomolgus monkey thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Cynomolgus monkey thrombin (wild-type) expressed in mammalian cells for addition of glycosylation moieties.
    Species: Cynomolgus Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human thrombin (S195C)

     
    Human thrombin (S195C in chymotrypsin numbering, S525C in mature numbering) expressed in bacterial cells for specific labeling of the active site. Recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human thrombin (S195C)

     
    Human thrombin (S195C in chymotrypsin numbering, S525C in mature numbering) expressed in mammalian cells for addition of glycosylation moieties and specific labeling of the active site.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Mammalian Cell Line: HEK EBNA Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Human thrombin (S195A)

     
    Human thrombin (S195A in chymotrypsin numbering, S525A in mature numbering) recombinant bacterial expression. Serine 195 is the catalytic residue.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant
  • Murine thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Murine thrombin (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression (mouse).
    Species: Murine Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Canine thrombin (wild-type)

     
    Canine thrombin (wild-type) recombinant bacterial expression.
    Species: Canine Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Wild-type
  • Human polyhistadine-tagged thrombin

     
    Human polyhistadine-tagged thrombin recombinant bacterial expression. The polyhistadine-tag allows the easy removal of thrombin from a cleavage reaction on a nickle column.
    Species: Human Source: Recombinant Expression: Bacterial Cell Line: E coli Sequence Type: Mutant